The Lesbian Historic Motif Project (LHMP)

(Alpennia Home Page)

Contact me if you have questions, comments, or suggestions about the Lesbian Historic Motif Project.

Lesbians from the Bible Moralisee

(Go directly to the cumulative index.)

Note: As of 2015/06/12, the Project is on temporary hiatus in terms of new entries. (I need to spend the time on fiction writing projects for a while.) Please continue to follow my blog for discussion and topic-specific posts in the mean time.

I am also open to guest posts about relevant publications. See the guidelines and contact me if you're interested.

* * *

Many years ago, when I first started collecting historic research on lesbians and lesbian-like motifs for my own writing projects, I had in mind to put the results together as a sourcebook for other people to use. Like many projects I've started, the idea of a hard-copy, fixed-format product long since became obsolete. The survey essays I've done in the past on cross-dressing/passing women and on sex between women were outgrowths of the original project. But my original idea was more in the way of an open-ended annotated bibliography with extensive keyword indexing. Blogging brief summaries of individual articles (or book chapters) makes the project more manageable than organizing it around thematic survey essays, although there will be a lot of redundancy with those essays to begin with.

My goal here -- beyond the selfish utilitarian aspect of organizing my research -- is much in parallel with that of sites like the Medieval People of Color blog, or Kameron Hurley's award-winning essay "We Have Always Fought". I want to help change the unexamined assumptions about the place and nature of lesbian-like characters in historic fact, literature, art, and imagination. I want to do it to help other authors find inspiration and support for the stories they want to tell. And I want to do it to affect the reception of my own writing.

My project will be flawed in that it will privilege topics and interpretations of personal interest to me. (A geographic focus on Europe and it's neighbors. A temporal focus that ends at the 20th century and focuses strongly on the pre-modern. An examination of the data through a lesbian lens even when other lenses, such as transgender ones, are equally valid.) This is a caveat but not an apology. If I weren't doing it for selfish reasons, I wouldn't be doing it at all.

My selection process for the data I include is relatively simple: is this something that would be useful in grounding a fictional lesbian character in the context of historic human experience? Probably a minority of it will be items that could reasonably be connected with the label "lesbian" directly. I'm broadly interested in material that creates spaces in which lesbian characters (and especially ones that resonate strongly with modern readers and authors) could have existed. Topics will include behavior, appearance, emotional and affectional lives, economic issues and personal agency, social and legal structures, and anything else that takes my fancy. A pantry full of ingredients from which an infinite variety of dishes could be cooked.

Here's a more long-winded discussion of what I am - and am not - trying to do with this project.

Cumulative Index of Posts

All links open into a new page. Listings with no link are planned but have not been posted yet.

Publications To Be Included

This is a rough list of pulications I've identified for inclusion but have not yet covered.

Essays and Link Posts

Cross-Dressing Women in the SCA and the SCA's Period: A Personal View [website version] [LiveJournal version]

Sex Between Women in the Middle Ages and Renaissance [website version] [LiveJournal version]

Julie d'Aubigny - Link Post

Sources on Late 19th Century USA and England - Special Topic Bibliography

Anne Lister - Link Post

Transgender Themes in the Covered Publications (up through entry #104)

Lesbians and the Fantastic Through History (up through entry #82)

Portal Fantasies and Falling in Love with Cross-Dressing Girls - An essay categorizing cross-dressed-confusion plots.

Books and Articles

(Note: when multiple papers in a collection are covered, they will be listed both individually and under the collection.)

Amer, Sahar. 2001. “Lesbian Sex and the Military: From the Medieval Arabic Tradition to French Literature” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Amer, Sahar. 2008. Crossing Borders: Love Between Women in Medieval French and Arabic Literatures. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 978-0-8122-4087-0

Anson, John. 1974. “The Female Transvestite in Early Monasticism: The Origin and Development of a Motif” in Viator, 5: 1-32.

Auanger, Lisa. “Glimpses through a Window: An Approach to Roman Female Homoeroticism through Art Historical and Literary Evidence” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Beattie, Cordelia. 2007. Medieval Single Women: The Politics of Social Classification in Late Medieval England. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-928341-5

Benkov, Edith. 2001. “The Erased Lesbian: Sodomy and the Legal Tradition in Medieval Europe” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages. ed. by Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn. Palgrave, New York.

Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide. 1999. “A Singular Past” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. 1999. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7 [see individual papers below, all contents are covered]

Bennett, Judith M. 2000. "’Lesbian-Like' and the Social History of Lesbianism" in Journal of the History of Sexuality: 9:1-24.

Bennett, Judith M. 2006. History Matters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2004-9 [only Chapter 6: The L-Word in Women’s History]

Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. 2010. Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4 [see individual papers below, all contents are covered]

Beynon, John C. 2010. “Unaccountable Women” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Blackwood, Evelyn. 1986. “Breaking the Mirror: The Construction of Lesbianism and the Anthropological Discourse on Homosexuality” in Anthropology and Homosexual Behavior. Evelyn Blackwood, ed. The Haworth Press, New York. ISBN 0-86656-328-8 (Also published as Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 11, No. 3/4, Summer 1985.)

Bogin, Meg. 1976. The Women Troubadours. Paddington Press, Ltd., New York. ISBN 0-8467-0113-8

Bolin, Anne. “Traversing Gender: Cultural Context and Gender Practices” in Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Borris, Kenneth (ed). 2004. Same-Sex Desire in the English Renaissance: A Sourcebook of Texts, 1470-1650. Routledge, New York. ISBN 978-1-138-87953-9

Braunschneider, Theresa. 2010. “Reforming the Coquette: Poly, Homo, Hetero in The Reform’d Coquet and The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Brooten, Bernadette J. 1997. Love Between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-07591-5

Bruster, Douglas. 1993. “Female-Female Eroticism and the Early Modern Stage” in Renaissance Drama 24: 1-32.

Bullough, Vern L. 1974. “Transvestites in the Middle Ages” in American Journal of Sociology 79/6: 1381-1394

Bullough, Vern L. & James A. Brundage. 1996. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. Garland Publishing, New York. ISBN 0-8153-3662-4 [see also the following, only these articles covered]

Bullough, Vern. 1996. “Cross Dressing and Gender Role Change in the Middle Ages” in Handbook of Medieval Sexuality, ed. Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage Garland Publishing, New York. ISBN 0-8153-3662-4

Burshatin, Israel. “Elena Alias Eleno: Genders, Sexualities, and ‘Race’ in the Mirror of Natural History in Sixteenth-Century Spain” in Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Campbell, Mary Anne. 1992. “Redefining Holy Maidenhead: Virginity and Lesbianism in Late Medieval England” Medieval Feminist Newsletter, 13: 14-15.

Chesser, Lucy. 1998. "A Woman Who Married Three Wives: Management of Disruptive Knowledge in the 1879 Australian Case of Edward De Lacy Evans" in Journal of Women's History vol 9 no 4: 53-77.

Chojnacka, Monica. 1999. “Singlewomen in Early Modern Venice: Communities and Opportunities” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Clark, Robert L. A. & Claire Sponsler. 1997. "Queer Play: The Cultural Work of Crossdressing in Medieval Drama" in New Literary History, 28:219-344.

Clark, Robert L.A. “Jousting without a Lance: The Condemnation of Female Homoeroticism in the Livre des Manieres” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages. ed. by Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn. Palgrave, New York, 2001.

Clover, Carol J. 1995. "Maiden Warriors and Other Sons" in Robert R. Edwards & Vickie Ziegler (eds). Matrons and Marginal Women in Medieval Society. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge.

Colclough, Stephen. 2010. “’Do you not know the quotation?’: Reading Anne Lister, Anne Lister Reading” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Crane, Susan. 1996. “Clothing and Gender Definition: Joan of Arc,” in Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 26:2 : 297-320.

Crawford, Patricia & Sara Mendelson. 1995. "Sexual Identities in Early Modern England: The Marriage of Two Women in 1680" in Gender and History vol 7, no 3: 362-377.

Cressy, David. 1996. “Gender Trouble and Cross-Dressing in Early Modern England” in Journal of British Studies 35/4: 438-465.

Dekker, Rudolf M. and van de Pol, Lotte C. 1989. The Tradition of Female Transvestism in Early Modern Europe. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0-333-41253-2

Donoghue, Emma. 1995. Passions Between Women. Harper Perennial, New York. ISBN 0-06-017261-4

Donoghue, Emma. 2010. “’Random Shafts of Malice?’: The Outings of Anne Damer” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Donoghue, Emma. 2010. Inseparable: Desire Between Women in Literature. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 978-0-307-27094-8

Dugaw, Dianne. 1989. Warrior Women and Popular Balladry 1650-1850. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ISBN 0-226-16916-2

Eisenbichler, Konrad. 1999. “Laudomia Forteguerri Loves Margaret of Austria” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Farmer, Sharon. 1999. “’It Is Not Good That [Wo]man Should Be Alone’: Elite Responses to Singlewomen in High Medieval Paris” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Froide, Amy M. 1999. “Marital Status as a Category of Difference: Singlewomen and Widows in Early Modern England” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Gonda, Caroline. 2010. “The Odd Women: Charlotte Charke, Sarah Scott and the Metamorphoses of Sex” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Greene, Ellen. “Subjects, Objects, and Erotic Symmetry in Sappho’s Fragments” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Habib, Samar. 2007. Female Homosexuality in the Middle East: Histories and Representations. Routledge, New York. ISBN 78-0-415-80603-9

Habib, Samar. 2009. Arabo-Islamic Texts on Female Homosexuality: 850-1780 A.D. Teneo Press, Youngstown. ISBN 978-1-934844-11-3

Habib, Samar. 2012. Rughum & Najda: A Novel. Oracle Releasing. ISBN 978-0-9837161-1-2 [of associational interest]

Haggerty, George E. 2010. “Women Beware Women: Female Gothic Villains and Victims” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Haley, Shelley P. “Lucian’s ‘Leaena and Clonarium’: Voyeurism or a Challenge to Assumptions?” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Hallett, Judith P. 1997. “Female Homoeroticism and the Denial of Roman Reality in Latin Literature” in Roman Sexualities, ed. By Judith P. Hallett & Marilyn B. Skinner, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Halperin, David. 1998. “Lesbian Historiography before the Name?” in Gay and Lesbian Quarterly 4:557-630. [A panel discussion of Brooten 1997]

Hansen, Karen V. 1995. "No Kisses is Like Youres" in Gender and History vol 7, no 2: 153-182.

Holsinger, Bruce Wood. 1993. “The Flesh of the Voice: Embodiment and the Homoerotics of Devotion in the Music of Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)” in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 19 no. 1: 92-125.

Hotchkiss, Valerie R. 1996. Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross Dressing in Medieval Europe. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8153-3771-x

Hunt, Margaret R.. 1999. “The Sapphic Strain: English Lesbians in the Long Eighteenth Century” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Huot, Sylvia. 1990. "Addressing the Issue of Lesbianism in a General Course on Women in the Middle Ages" (Gay and Lesbian Concerns in Medieval Studies, special issue) Medieval Feminist Newsletter 13:10-11.

Hutcheson, Gregory S. 2001. “Leonor López de Córdoba and the Configuration of Female-Female Desire” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Karras, Ruth Mazo. 1999. “Sex and the Singlewoman” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Kowaleski, Maryanne. 1999. “Singlewomen in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: The Demographic Perspective” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Krimmer, Elisabeth. 2004. In the Company of Men: Cross-Dressed Women Around 1800. Wayne State University Press, Detroit. ISBN 0-8143-3145-9

Krueger, Roberta L. 1999. “Transforming Maidens: Singlewomen’s Stories in Marie de France’s Lais and Later French Courtly Narratives” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Lanser, Susan S. 1999. “Singular Politics: The Rise of the British Nation and the Production of the Old Maid” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Lanser, Susan S. 2010. “Tory Lesbians: Economies of Intimacy and the Status of Desire” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Lanser, Susan S. 2014. The Sexuality of History: Modernity and the Sapphic, 1565-1830 ISBN 978-0-226-18773-0

Levin, Richard A. 1997. “What? How? Female-Female Desire in Sidney’s New Arcadia” in Criticism 39:4 : 463-49.

Liventhal, Viveca. 1985. “What Goes on among the Women: The Settings of Some Attic Vase Paintings of the Fifth Century B.C.” in Analecta Romana Institute Danici 14: 37-52.

Lochrie, Karma. 1999. “Presumptive Sodomy and its Exclusions” in Textual Practice 13:2, 295-310.

Malti-Douglas, Fedwa. 2001. “Tribadism/Lesbianism and the Sexualized Body in Medieval Arabo-Islamic Narratives” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages. ed. by Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn. Palgrave, New York.

Matter, E. Ann. 1989. “My Sister, My Spouse: Woman-Identified Women in Medieval Christianity” in Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality, eds. Judith Plaskow & Carol P. Christ. Harper & Row, San Francisco.

Merrick, Jeffrey & Bryant T. Ragan, Jr. 2001. Homosexuality in Early Modern France: A Documentary Collection. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-19-510257-6

Michelsen, Jakob. 1996. “Von Kaufleuten, Waisenknaben und Frauen in Männerkleidern: Sodomie im Hamburg des 18. Jahrhunderts” in Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung 9: 226-27.

Murray, Jacqueline. 1996. "Twice marginal and twice invisible: Lesbians in the Middle Ages" in Handbook of Medieval Sexuality, ed. Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage, Garland Publishing,. pp. 191-222

Murray, Stephen O. & Will Roscoe eds. 1997. Islamic Homosexualities - Culture, History, and Literature. New York University Press, New York. ISBN 0-8147-7468-7 [see following - only selected articles covered]

Norton, Rictor (Ed.), Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century England: A Sourcebook. Updated 7 September 2014 <http://rictornorton.co.uk/eighteen/>. (Accessed 2014/09/13) (Direct link to website)

O’Driscoll, Sally. 2010. “A Crisis of Femininity: Re-Making Gender in Popular Discourse” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Pintabone, Diane T. “Ovid’s Iphis and Ianthe: When Girls Won’t Be Girls” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Puff, Helmut. 2000. "Female Sodomy: The Trial of Katherina Hetzeldorfer (1477)" in Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies: 30:1, 41-61.

Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin. “Introduction” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin. “Excavating Women’s Homoeroticism in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from Attic Vase Painting” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Rehak, Paul. “Imag(in)ing a Women’s World in Bronze Age Greece: The Frescoes from Xeste 3 at Akrotiri, Thera” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Rieger, Angelica. 1989. “Was Bieiris de Romans Lesbian? Women’s Relations with Each Other in the World of the Troubadours” in The Voice of the Trobairitz: Perspectives on the Women Troubadours, ed. by William D. Paden. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-8167-5

Robinson, David. 2010. “Pornographic Homophobia: L’Academie des dames and the Deconstructing Lesbian” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Roche-Mahdi, Sarah. 1999. Silence. Michigan State University Press, Lansing. ISBN 0-87013-543-0

Rose, Mary Beth. 1984. “Women in Men’s Clothing: Apparel and Social Stability in The Roaring Girl,” in ELR: English Literary Renaissance 14:3 (1984): 367-91

Rupp, Leila J. 2009. Sapphistries: A Global History of Love Between Women. New York University Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8147-7726-8

Sautman, Francesca Canadé & Pamela Sheingorn eds. 2001. Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages, ed. by, Palgrave, New York. [see individual papers below, all contents are covered]

Sautman, Francesca Canadé & Pamela Sheingorn. 2001. “Introduction: Charting the Field” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages, ed. by Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn, Palgrave, New York.

Sautman, Francesca Canadé. 2001. “What Can They Possibly Do Together? Queer Epic Performances in Tristan de Nanteuil” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Schibanoff, Susan. 1990. "Chaucer's Lesbians: Drawing Blanks?" (Gay and Lesbian Concerns in Medieval Studies, special issue) Medieval Feminist Newsletter 13:11-14.

Schibanoff, Susan. 2001. “Hildegard of Bingen and Richardis of Stade: The Discourse of Desire” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Schleiner, Winfried. “Cross-Dressing, Gender Errors, and Sexual Taboos in Renaissance Literature” in Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Sears, Clare. 2015. Arresting Dress: Cross-Dresing, Law, and Fascination in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5758-2

Shank, Michael H. 1987. "A Female University Student in Late Medieval Krakow" in Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society: 12:373-380.

Skinner, Marilyn B. “Aphrodite Garlanded: Eros and Poetic Creativity in Sappho and Nossis” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Stuard, Susan Mosher. 1999. “Single by Law and Custom” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Torjesen, Karen Jo. “Martyrs, Ascetics, and Gnostics: Gender-crossing in Early Christianity” in Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Traub, Valerie. 2002. The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-44885-9

Traub, Valerie. 2010. “’Friendship So Curst’: Amor Impossibilis, the Homoerotic Lament and the Nature of Lesbian Desire” in Lesbian Dames: Sapphism in the Long Eighteenth Century. Beynon, John C. & Caroline Gonda eds. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-7335-4

Vanita, Ruth. 2001. “’At All Times Near’: Love Between Women in Two Medieval Indian Devotional Texts” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Walen, Denise A. 2005. Constructions of Female Homoeroticism in Early Modern Drama. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6875-3

Watt, Diane 1998. "Behaving like a man? Incest, Lesbian desire, and gender play in 'Yde et Olive' and its adaptations", Comparative Literature, 50, 4 (Fall 1998): 265-85.

Welch, J.L. “Cross-Dressing and Cross-Purposes: Gender Possibilities in the Acts of Thecla” in Ramet, Sabrina Petra (ed). 1996. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-11483-7

Weston, Lisa. 2001. “Elegiac Desire and Female Community in Baudonivia’s Life of Saint Radegund” in Same Sex Love and Desire Among Women in the Middle Ages (ed. By Francesca Canadé Sautman & Pamela Sheingorn), Palgrave, New York.

Westphal-Wihl, Sarah. 1989. “The Ladies’ Tournament: Marriage, Sex, and Honor in Thirteenth-Century Germany” in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14/2: 371-398

Westphal, Sarah. 1997. "Amazons and Guérillères" in Medieval Feminist Newsletter, No. 23: 24-28.

Whitbread, Helena ed. 1992. I Know My Own Heart: The Diaries of Anne Lister 1791-1840. New York University Press, New York. ISBN 0-8147-9249-9

Wiesner, Merry E. 1999. “Having Her Own Smoke: Employment and Independence for Singlewomen in Germany 1400-1750” in Bennett, Judith M. & Amy M. Froide eds. Singlewomen in the European Past 1250-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-1668-7

Wilfong, Terry G. “’Friendship and Physical Desire’: The Discourse of Female Homoeroticism in Fifth-Century CE Egypt” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4

Woodward, Carolyn. 1993. “’My Heart So Wrapt’: Lesbian Disruptions in Eighteenth-Century British Fiction” in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 18:838-865.

Erskine. 1744. The travels and adventures of Mademoiselle de Richelieu : cousin to the present Duke ... who made the tour of Europe, dressed in men's cloaths ... Done into English from the lady's own manuscript, by the translator of the Memoirs and adventures of the Marques of Bretagne. Dublin, Oli. Nelson.

Younger, John G. “Women in Relief: ‘Double Consciousness’ in Classical Attic Tombstones” in Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin & Lisa Auanger eds. 2002. Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-77113-4